Herstory: Florence Nightingale, the Lady with the Lamp

The name Florence Nightingale summons up images of the devoted nurse who patiently and tirelessly made rounds to check on her wards late at night. But this ‘Lady With the Lamp” was not just a compassionate carer to the sick and wounded but also a pioneer of modern nursing and the sanitation practices that we know of and follow today.

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Image courtesy of http://www.cnmr.org.uk/

Born in Italy in 1820 to a wealthy and extensively connected British family, Nightingale had a comfortable upbringing in England which included a good education. As a teenager she felt a deep calling to help those less fortunate and she found the social obligations of her affluent family very uncomfortable, preferring to be away from the attention of others. At the age of sixteen, she preferred to minister to the poor and the ill in their village. Her family was opposed to her decision to become a nurse, as the expectation of women in those times (and especially of her status) was to become a wife and a mother. Despite this opposition, Florence threw herself into her study of nursing as an art and a science, waving off the prospect of marriage, as she believed it would be an obstacle to her goal of becoming a nurse.

In 1850, Nightingale was visiting a pastor in Germany where she observed him treat the sick and the destitute in an institution. She wrote a paper about her findings on the institution, Kaiserswerth which became her first piece of published work. Her foundation for nursing care also came from this institution, where she spent four months developing her medical training.

A year later, she began to work at the Institute for the Care of Sick Gentlewomen in London. Her parents supported her financially during this time, ensuring she led a comfortable life and also allowing her to travel extensively and further her career.

It was during the Crimean War that Florence was able to give what was said to be her most significant contribution in the field of nursing and sanitation. On October 21, 1854, she and several others were deployed to the British camp in Crimea to tend to the wounded that were suffering in what could only be described as horrific conditions. Nightingale arrived in November of the same year and immediately noted the shortage of medical supplies, neglect for proper hygiene, poor nutrition, an alarming rate of infection spreading and a lack of food processing equipment. She noted all this in a letter to the The Times, and the government responded accordingly by erecting the prefabricated Renkioi Hospital

With this act, she was able to reduce the death rate of the wounded to 2% from a staggering 42%, along with personal improvements in hygiene and persistently calling for action from the Sanitary Commission. Ever so humble, she refused to take credit for her part in drastically improving the hospital and care conditions of the wounded. Her time at Crimea was also where she gained the moniker ‘The Lady With the Lamp’, often seen as the gentle angel who faithfully came to check on her wards late in the night.

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The Lady with the Lamp, image courtesy of http://www.britainfirst.org

Her experience in Crimea formed the foundation of her advocacy for sanitary living conditions for both war times and in peace. Upon returning to Britain, Nightingale focused her attention on hospital sanitary design and introducing better hygiene standards in working class homes.

In November 1855, her efforts were rewarded with the establishment of the Nightingale Fund, with the aim of training nurses to improve proper care and sanitation practices. This fund had many wealthy donors, and so she had enough money from the Fund to also open the Nightingale Training School in July 1860. Apart from training, she also tirelessly campaigned and raised funds for hospitals in need of better sanitation and nursing.

Her book Notes on Nursing (1859) is considered to be the classic foundation tome on nursing and was well-received by the public, even though it was simply the curriculum material used at the Nightingale School and many other nursing schools. Its significance was such that she was able to cover important topics that went beyond patient recovery and care for infection: it also touched on topics such as sanitation of the environment and the importance of cleanliness. Her school for nursing gave the public nurses and caregivers who were more than just able-bodied: they were knowledgeable in the fields of medicine and science, and could dispense proper care to patients. This set a standard in Ireland and England beginning in the 1860s and onwards.

Nightingale spent the rest of her life promoting and improving the nursing profession, with her work also being noticed in the United States during the time of the Civil War. She was requested by the American government to help organize field medicine and she became the inspiration of nurses there, and spurred volunteer work through the United States Sanitary Commission. She also personally trained Linda Richards, who is considered to be the first trained nurse in America, in the 1870s. Thanks to the tutelage of Nightingale, Richards was able to set up high quality programs for nursing schools in the United States and in Japan.

Her hard work and dedication resulted in the receipt of several prestigious awards: the Royal Red Cross (1883), the appointment of a Lady of Grace of the Order of St. John (1904), the first woman recipient of the Order of Merit award (1907), and the Honorary Freedom Award of London (1908). Today, her birthday is commemorated as International Chronic Fatigue Awareness (CFS) Day.

Florence Nightingale writing letters

Image courtesy of http://www.redcross.org.uk

In 1857, Nightingale began suffering from depression and was frequently bedridden due to brucellosis and spondylitis. Despite this, she was remarkably productive in her work on social reform and spent her bedridden years mapping out pioneering work in the study of hospital planning. Despite having very little written output in her last years (due to her blindness and deteriorating mental faculties), she nonetheless was able to provide improvements that were quickly applied by Britain and other nations.

Florence Nightingale peacefully died in her sleep at the age of 90 on August 13, 1910, leaving behind not only her legacy of a textbook on nursing and the establishment of key educational and training facilities for nurses but also hundreds of notes and unpublished works which are a testament to her tireless devotion to her advocacy and her unwavering compassion for those who most need it.

 
Useful Resources about Florence Nightingale:
http://www.biography.com/people/florence-nightingale-9423539#death-and-legacy
http://www.agnesscott.edu/lriddle/women/nitegale.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Florence_Nightingale
http://www.countryjoe.com/nightingale/
http://resources.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk/Homework/victorians/florence/index.htm

 

 

 

 

 

Herstory: Marie Curie, Female Scientist Extraordinaire

Many people consider Marie Curie the best known and most inspirational woman of science. Her amazing contributions to the field were backed by a life that was a perfect example of dedication to personal passions motivated by the desire to help humankind.

marie curie

Image courtesy of http://www.clccharter.org/

Born in Warsaw, Poland in 1867, Maria Salomea Sklodowska was the youngest of five children. The Sklodowska family, who once lived a comfortable life, lost most of their property and finances due to the uprisings that overwhelmed Poland a few years before she was born. Maria’s family not only struggled to make ends meet but also had to deal with tragedies early on in their family life. In 1878, her mother died from tuberculosis when Maria was just ten years old. This came three years after the family dealt with their first tragedy, which was the death of Zofia (Maria’s oldest sibling) due to typhus.

These two deaths in their family prompted Maria to turn agnostic, despite growing up with a devoutly Catholic mother.

Maria was only sixteen years old when she received her first significant academic accolade: a gold medal upon her graduation in 1883. She took the year off soon after to stay with relatives in the countryside so that she could heal from a collapse, which many pinpoint was due to depression. In those times, women were not permitted to study in regular institutions of higher learning. So together with her sister Bronislawa, she instead opted to go with the underground Flying University, which was the only Polish institution that accepted female students.

As money was still tight, Maria took a job first as a tutor and then as a governess for a family of a distant relative, the Zorawskis. There, she fell in love with Kazimierz Zorawski, the son who would later become a renowned mathematician. As she was poor, the parents of Kazimierz rejected the relationship.

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Young Marie Curie, Image courtesy of http://www.fromquarkstoquasars.com/

In the early 1890s, Maria focused her efforts on earning enough funds to pay for further education in Paris, where her sister had moved. She also busied herself by learning from a tutor and self-studying. It was also during this time that she embarked on her life-long training in science, beginning in a chemical laboratory in Warsaw.

In the latter part of 1891, Maria left for France and lived with her sister before securing quarters of her own near the University of Paris, which was where she pursued studies in mathematics, chemistry and physics. Maria, who then became known as Marie (as is the French counterpart of her name) struggled for resources and had occasional fainting spells from lack of sustenance. Still, she kept to her studies during the day and earned a little during the evenings through tutoring work. Finally in 1893, she obtained a physics degree and began working for Professor Gabriel Lippmann in his industrial laboratory. At this time, she pursued another degree at the same University a mere year after.

Marie’s scientific career benefited from opportunities to engage in experimentation and research through commissioned work from both the private and public spheres. It was also during these early years that she met and fell in love with Pierre Curie, a fellow physicist and instructor at the School of Physics and Chemistry in France.

Pierre proposed marriage and Marie only agreed after a visit to Poland. She went back to Poland with the intent to pursue her work in the academe in her native country but it yielded no success simply because she was female. Pierre and Marie were married in July 26, 1895, and apart from their passion for science, they spent ample time on shared pursuits such as trips abroad and long bicycle rides together. The Curies were blessed with two daughters: Irene and Eve. The couple frequently collaborated on scientific pursuits together in their makeshift laboratory and among their other accomplishments are credited for the discovery of element radioactivity, and the new elements “polonium” (named after her native Poland) and “radium” (Latin for “ray”)’. The husband and wife team published 32 scientific papers from 1898 to 1902, which included one that identified that tumor cells are quickly destroyed with radium exposure.

Pierre tragically died in April 19, 1906 due to a road accident, which left Marie devastated. But despite yet another loss, she still forged ahead with her academic and scientific pursuits. In the same year, she accepted on behalf of her husband a professorial chair at the University of Paris, making her the first female professor of the esteemed university.

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With husband, Pierre Curie and daughters, Irene and Eve, Image courtesy of http://www.bonjourparis.com/

Marie Curie became the first female faculty member at Ecole Normale Superieure in 1900. She obtained her doctorate degree in 1903 from the University of Paris.

She received two Nobel Prizes – in 1903 for physics and in 1911 for chemistry. She is the first female recipient of the Nobel Prize, the first person and only woman to have prizes in two fields, and the only person to ever win in multiple sciences.

She also received the following awards: the Davy Medial (1903), Matteucci Medal (1904), Actonian Prize (1907) and the Elliot Cresson Medal (1909).

Being a female in Marie Curie’s lifetime and chosen field often meant inequality. She was initially supposed to be kept out of the Nobel Prize honor until her husband found out and issued a complaint. She was not permitted to speak at a radioactivity lecture at the Royal Institution in London because she was a woman. She was forced to be very thorough in outlining her significant contributions to papers she pushed, as not doing so could result in repercussions in the acknowledgement of her work and originality. Marie was bypassed for an election to the French Academy of Sciences in 1911 in favor of Edouard Branly, the inventor who assisted in the creation of the wireless telegraph.

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Marie Curie, the scientist, Image courtesy of http://takebackhalloween.org/

Her personal life was also challenging due to her success as a female scientist. The media did not spare her; using her lack of religion and foreign status as excuses to criticize her and creating false stories that she was Jewish. A relationship she had developed with physicist Paul Langevin in 1910 to 1911 was branded a scandal due to Langevin being a man whose wedding was on the rocks, and quite possibly because she was five years his senior. A mob had formed in front of her home, accusing her of being a Jewish home-wrecking foreigner. Marie, together with her daughters had no choice but to seek refuge in a friend’s home.

Despite the attention from the scientific community and the world, Marie usually preferred to stay out of the limelight unless she had to generate funds to further her research. She (and also Pierre) did not patent their important discoveries so that research on these by other scientists could continue freely. She was known to donate money she had received from her work in science to friends, family members, and the needy.

During World War 1, she designed and created mobile x-ray machines that helped front line medical officers treat the wounded, using her own supply of radium; an estimated one million soldiers benefitted from her invention. She trained more than 200 females to become medical aides.

Marie even went as far as trying to donate her Nobel gold to the war effort, which was declined by the government. Unfazed, she instead purchased war bonds and used her Nobel Prize money to do so. Despite these humanitarian efforts, Marie Curie never received any recognition from the French government.

Marie Curie spent her post-war years touring various countries to deliver lectures and raise funds for various research efforts on radium. She had travelled to the United States, Brazil, Spain, Belgium and Czechoslovakia. She became a member and fellow of many important research institutes and international commissions.

On July 4, 1934, Marie Curie died from aplastic anemia in Sancellemoz Sanatorium. Her cause of death was believed to be due to her long-spanning exposure to radiation. Her remains and that of her husband Pierre were relocated to the Pantheon in Paris as a way of honoring their achievements in the field of science.

Marie Curie’s tireless and groundbreaking scientific work, conducted from within a prejudiced and patriarchic culture has made her a woman to look up to. Her achievements have shaped society, saved millions of lives, and became the entry points for even more groundbreaking work in the fields of science and medicine.

 

Useful links about Marie Curie:
http://www.aip.org/history/curie/polgirl1.htm
http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1903/marie-curie-bio.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marie_Curie
http://womenshistory.about.com/od/mariecurie/p/marie_curie.htm